Although favored by capital, and despite the enthusiasm for promoting the integration of the three industries, the integration of the three industries has a long way to go from strategy to implementation.
In the past two years, relevant top-level designs have been successively introduced at the national level. Agricultural demonstration parks, agricultural industrial parks, rural complexes, agricultural characteristic towns ... The path of the integration of the three agricultural industries has become clearer, and the implementation of the strategy has become more and more accurate.
In the past two years, the characteristic agricultural towns and rural complexes have become popular destinations for capital, but many of them have deviated from the core of the agricultural industry and made pure tourism projects and even real estate projects.
The integration of the three industries is to solve the low added value of the agricultural industry and to extend the agricultural industrial chain and value chain. Therefore, the integration of the three industries must strictly follow the province's construction direction of "surname farming, farming, farming for agriculture, and farming."
What is the integration of the three industries?
一产一般泛指农业生产，因地制宜，发展特色农业、循环农业、现代化高效农业。 Primary production: Primary production generally refers to agricultural production, adapting to local conditions, developing characteristic agriculture, circular agriculture, and modern and efficient agriculture. The "fish-vegetative symbiosis" system displayed in the tenth hall of this year's food expo will use aquaculture and hydroponic cultivation, which are completely different technologies. Through clever ecological design, water is used as the medium to filter the water in the fish pond. Vegetables are directly provided as a "nutrient solution" for growth, and the "nutrient solution" absorbed by the vegetables after being "de-fertilized" flows back to the fish pond for fish to grow, and finally reaches "fish farming without changing water, and vegetables and soil without fertilizer" Fish dishes synergistic purpose.
二产是“农产品加工业”，是以农业物料、人工种养或野生动植物资源为原料进行工业生产活动的总和，从当前我国农产品加工的品种类别来看，国内产品种类较少，品种单调。 Secondary Product : The secondary product is the "agricultural product processing industry", which is the sum of industrial production activities using agricultural materials, artificial cultivation or wild animal and plant resources as raw materials. From the perspective of the types of agricultural products processed in China, there are fewer types of domestic products. The variety is monotonous. China's statistics related to agricultural products processing industry are food processing industry, food manufacturing industry, beverage manufacturing industry, tobacco processing industry, textile industry, clothing and other fiber products manufacturing industry, leather, fur, down and its products industry, wood processing and bamboo and rattan Palm grass products industry, furniture manufacturing industry, paper and paper products industry, printing industry recording media reproduction and rubber products industry total 12 industries.
三产是“农业相关服务业”，拓展延伸农产品功能和提升附加值，如农业观光、科普教育、品牌展示、文化传承等，近年来农家乐发展愈加壮大。 Tertiary industry: Tertiary industry is an "agricultural-related service industry" that expands and extends the functions of agricultural products and enhances added value, such as agricultural tourism, science education, brand display, cultural heritage, etc. In recent years, the development of farmhouses has grown stronger.
1 + 1 + 1 = 3 or 1 + 2 + 3 = 6
In addition to the traditional production functions of agriculture, agricultural, processing, tourism, cultural propaganda, recreation and other functions have unlimited potential. Whether it is a single agricultural production or a rural sightseeing tour based on farmhouses, obviously it does not really play the agricultural function. However, the integration of agriculture's primary, secondary and tertiary industries is still at an exploratory stage, and many places are still in the state of simple coexistence of primary, secondary and tertiary industries, that is, 1 + 1 + 1 = 3.
At present, many villages have a simple understanding of the integration of the three industries. Some farmers are engaged in agricultural production activities, and it is not uncommon for a family to run a farmhouse to entertain tourists. Planting, adding, selling, and swimming, seemingly complete, but each has its own work, the three industries merge into three skins.
In the 1990s, Naraichi Imamura, an emeritus professor and agricultural expert at the University of Tokyo in Japan, first proposed the concept of the "sixth industry" in response to the development dilemma facing Japanese agriculture. That is, by encouraging diversified operations, not only planting crops (first industry), but also engaging in agricultural product processing (secondary industry) and selling agricultural products and their processed products (tertiary industry) to obtain more value-added value. Since "1 + 2 + 3" is equal to 6, and "1x2x3" is also equal to 6, it is called "sixth industry". The idea of the "sixth industry" actually coincides with the "integration of the three industries".
Diversification of tertiary industry
The integration of the three industries is still in the exploratory stage, and localities need to adapt to local conditions and combine their own characteristics to explore new agricultural development models.
：服务业向农业渗透，发展服务业的同时利用农业景观和生产活动，开发观光农业而不仅仅只是看看山水;利用互联网优势，尤其是近段时间以来的阿里巴巴“千县万村”计划以及京东的“3F”战略，提升农产品电商服务业;以农业和农村发展为主题，使用论坛、博览会、节庆活动等方式或平台展现农业。 1 + 3 integration : the penetration of the service industry into agriculture, while developing the service industry, using agricultural landscapes and production activities, developing tourism agriculture, not just looking at landscapes; using the advantages of the Internet, especially Alibaba ’s “Thousands of Counties” “Wancun” plan and JD.com ’s “3F” strategy to enhance the agricultural e-commerce service industry; with agriculture and rural development as the theme, the forum or exhibitions, festivals, and other methods or platforms are used to showcase agriculture.
：利用工业工程技术、装备、设施等改造传统农业，采用机械化、自动化、智能化的管理方式发展高效农业。 1 + 2 integration : use industrial engineering technology, equipment, facilities, etc. to transform traditional agriculture, and use mechanized, automated, and intelligent management methods to develop efficient agriculture. Such as ecological agriculture, precision agriculture, smart agriculture, plant factories, etc., the strong support for the agricultural machinery industry is conducive to accelerating the integration of the primary and secondary industries. The rise of "green collar" agricultural machinery hands is a typical representative of this trend.
：二产向三产拓展的工业旅游业，以工业生产过程、工厂风貌、产品展示为主要参观内容开发的旅游活动，反之以三产的文化创意活动带动加工。 2 + 3 integration : The industrial tourism industry that the secondary industry expands to the tertiary industry develops tourism activities that mainly focus on industrial production processes, factory styles, and product display, while the cultural and creative activities of the tertiary industry drive processing. By means of creativity, processing and production, rural cultural resources are transformed into various forms of products.
：农村三产联合开发生态休闲、旅游观光、文化传承、教育体验等多种功能，使三种产业形成“你中有我、我中有你”的发展格局。 1 + 2 + 3 integration : The rural tertiary industry jointly develops multiple functions such as ecological leisure, tourism, cultural heritage, and educational experience, so that the three industries form a development pattern of "you have me, you have me". Typical formats include agricultural product logistics, smart agriculture, factories, ranch tourism, winery tourism, etc. Integrating the advantages of animal husbandry, dairy processing, and ranch tourism into a ranch, the ranch changes one single production mode and is one of the most representative modes of integration of the three industries.
From the primary industry to the integration of the three industries: multiple functions of agriculture are being demonstrated
Introduce leisure agriculture and rural tourism boutique scenic routes, increase the protection and inheritance of important agricultural cultural heritage, explore the establishment of agricultural carnivals, leisure agricultural characteristic villages, rural complexes and other brands ...
Digging agriculture's multiple functions in production, processing, and services has become a major new issue in structural reforms on the supply side of agriculture. Leading new models of new industries and new industries such as agricultural product processing industry, leisure agriculture, rural tourism, and e-commerce, all localities have promoted agriculture “one after another” or “separated from one another” to achieve the addition of the industry chain; through the quality brand to enhance the value-added The second value-added of processing and packaging and the third value-added of logistics sales realized the enhancement of the value chain.
A survey by the Ministry of Agriculture shows that at present, 129,000 leading enterprises of various types across the country, 270,000 leisure agricultural enterprises, 31,000 rural e-commerce companies, and more than 900,000 farmers' cooperatives have initially developed in the direction of the entire industry chain and value chain. Provide carrier support for promoting industrial integration.
Agricultural supply-side structural reforms have also started from a deeper level, steadily pushing forward the reform of the rural collective property rights system, cultivating new agricultural business entities, and supporting entrepreneurs returning to rural areas. Through the integration and development of rural industries, localities have left resource elements, popularity, and profit taxation in the countryside, driving the integration, optimization, and reorganization of resources, elements, technology, and market demand in rural areas.
Four key points should be grasped in the integration of the three industries in rural areas
Find the industry convergence point. Only by finding the integration point can industrial integration have vitality. We must adhere to the development of modern agriculture based on industrial and Internet concepts, accelerate the establishment of a modern agricultural industrial system, production system, and management system, and promote the deep integration of agriculture and product processing, leisure tourism, cultural creativity, and healthy retirement. Work on "fine" agriculture, "strong" processing industry, and "special" tertiary industry, work on the integration and development of the entire industrial chain of agro-industrial, agricultural tourism, farming and business, and breeding and marketing, and promote agricultural development Quality and efficiency, the development of new industries and new formats have seen practical results, allowing advanced elements and technological innovation to infiltrate, closely blend, and promote each other in the secondary and tertiary industries, develop internal agricultural reorganization and integration, industrial chain extension and integration, and three industrial cross integration and other forms. Fusion mode.
Cultivate fusion support points. The level and level of industrial integration and development depend critically on the driving force of market players. At present, the development of agricultural business entities is insufficient, with self-development capabilities, weak market competitiveness, and weak driving force. At the same time, it is facing difficulties in terms of talent, land use, financing, and inadequate supply of infrastructure. It is necessary to vigorously support the rapid development of new agricultural operators such as farmers' cooperatives and family farms, support leading agricultural industrialization enterprises to become bigger, stronger and better, enhance their radiation-driven capabilities, give play to the effects of resource aggregation, and lead to the integration and development of rural industries. Industrial and commercial capital is an important force to promote agriculture by supplementing agriculture with agriculture and promoting rural development. It is necessary to encourage and guide urban industrial and commercial capital to participate in rural construction, promote joint and cooperative development of industry and agriculture, and expand the boundaries of industrial integration. Farmers are always the mainstay of prospering agriculture and strengthening agriculture. We must support and encourage entrepreneurs who are willing and capable to start business and innovate, and expand the channels for small farmers to enter modern agriculture.
Grasp the focus of policy. The integration of the three industries in rural areas is a new thing and cannot be achieved without the support of the government. It is necessary to comprehensively deepen the reform of the administrative system, deepen the reform of agriculture and rural areas, simplify market access, approval and other procedures, establish and improve integrated development promotion mechanisms, remove institutional barriers, and reduce institutional transaction costs. Optimize policy support, prioritize policies on land, electricity, and water, as well as fiscal, tax, industrial, and credit policies, increase the training of new-type professional farmers and other talents, break the bottlenecks of factors, and stimulate market participants' enthusiasm for participation and integration. Create a good market environment, improve the rural property rights trading market, build information service platforms for rural technology exchange, entrepreneurship, and finance, vigorously support agricultural technology research and development and extension services, and improve agricultural insurance and financing services. Speed up the repair of infrastructure shortcomings, and vigorously strengthen infrastructure such as water circuit bridges and high-standard farmland on contiguous lands.
Tie the points of interest. Behind the development of industrial integration is the connection of the interests of related parties. Farmers are the main body of agricultural and rural development and the starting point and end point of integrated development. In promoting the integrated development of rural one, two, and three industries, farmers cannot be left aside. According to the principle of balancing the interests of all parties and protecting the rights and interests of farmers, a closely linked benefit distribution mechanism should be established to encourage market operators to establish a production order contract with farmers and farmers to use land management rights to invest in dividends. Share the benefits of industrial integration and development.
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